Better Essays words 4. Plato was born in Greece in BC and grew up in a wealthy and noble family. He became a philosopher when his teacher, and another great philosopher of Greece, Socrates, was tried and executed in BC. Plato wrote a lot about Socrates in his works of ancient Greece. Plato helped form classical education, and we would not have a good basis for education in America and western civilization Better Essays words 2. His errors are volitional and are the portals of discovery. Why is it so selective.
This is a superstitious explanation for "genius," of course, and we know statistically that genius IQs really are rare Better Essays words 2 pages. Could it be Madness. A correlation between a more creative individual and a mentally ill patient exists, and it is highly likeable that the former could be the latter. As a child, his father died, his mother was a widow: someone who lost their husband and is single however, that did not last too long, because his mother remarried to a man named Pyrilampes. Plato was at birth, named Aristolcles, and had the title of Plankton. He had great interest in poetry and music; he was especially good in philosophy, which dealt with theoretical principles, and a field of philosophy called epistemology that explained human knowledge, and nature Better Essays words 1.
There are nearer approaches to modern metaphysics in the Philebus and in the Sophist; the Politicus or Statesman is more ideal; the form and institutions of the State are more clearly drawn out in the Laws; as works of art, the Symposium and the Protagoras are of higher excellence This question has sparked debate since the very formation of organized political society. Plato explains at great length the framework which. You would be both unjust and unwise if you allowed me to say that; — not less unjust than the rich people who say that all the poor are idle, and will never work if they can help it, or more than they can help.
For indeed the fact is, that there are idle poor and idle rich; and there are busy poor and busy rich. Many a beggar is as lazy as if he had ten thousand a year; and many a man of large fortune is busier. In my own personal life, I aim to become a clinical social worker to aid in the relief of those who have suffered.
More specifically, I would like to work in urgent care, hospitals, and hospice in order to help those with physical conditions understand the ramifications of their decisions and have as much peace among the chaos in their lives as possible. After much contemplation, I have decided. Looking at a specific philosopher, Plato for example, this equation may be further analyzed. The next, experience, explains why Plato has fixations with the ideas he possesses and the final piece to the equation, previous philosophers, is self-explanatory that earlier thinkers, like Socrates.
How is the allegory of the cave an allegory for enlightenment or philosophical education? How and why are most human beings like prisoners in a cave? Who are the puppeteers? What does the world outside the cave represent? What does the sun represent? What is a Form?
How is philosophy. It is quite progressive as both, men and women, are able to uphold the same positions at work and have access to the same education, and neither are restricted to being the sole caretaker of the children. While the state works for the people as a whole instead of individual, Plato also proposes the idea of propaganda to mold even the lowest of his utopia into model citizens for the state. In The Republic of Plato, Plato, in addition to sharing his views on justice, shares his views on democracy using a fictionalized Socrates to outline the most pressing issues.
Plato believes democracy leads to unequipped leaders who hold offices and power without the necessary traits and preparation. According to need, the writer makes use of songs, poetry, poetic dialogue, simple conversation etc is various parts of the play. Its manner of imitation should be action, not narration as in epic, for it is meant to be a dramatic representation, not a mere story-telling. The emotions of pity and fear find a full and free out-let in tragedy. Their excess is purged and we are lifted out of our selves and emerged nobler than before.
Tragedy is an imitation of … a. Which of the following lines of the definition of tragedy deals with the function of tragedy? Words, colours and music. Serious, comic and real aspect of life. Object, medium and manner. Action, narration and recitation. As discussed in the explanation of the definition of tragedy 1.sakophotimal.ml
Republic by Plato: Introduction
His theory of Catharsis consists in the purgation or purification of the excessive emotions of pity and fear. Witnessing the tragedy and suffering of the protagonist on the stage, such emotions and feelings of the audience is purged. The purgation of such emotions and feelings make them relieved and they emerge better human beings than they were. But for the exact meaning and concept of catharsis, there has been a lot of controversy among scholars and critics down the centuries.
The critics on catharsis by prolonged debated has succeeded only in creating confusion, not in clarifying the concept.
Yet since Aristotle is vague in the usage of this word, critics have to interpret it on his behalf. Certain broad understanding of the term is necessary, though the attempts at deriving the doctrines regarding the functions of the tragedy from this are absurd and ridiculous. The questions are:. The meaning of Catharsis: Let us quote F. It is bad to be selfishly sentimental, timid, and querulous; but it is good to pity Othello or to fear for Hamlet. Our selfish emotion has been sublimated. All this is most edifying; but it does not appear to be what Aristotle intended. Aristotle was the son of a Physician.
Inevitably we think of purgatives and complete evacuations of water products; and then outraged critics ask why our emotions should be so ill-treated. The theory is as old as the school of Hippocrates that on a due balance … of these humours depend the health of body and mind alike. Lucas To translate Catharsis as purgation today is misleading owing to the change of meaning which the word has undergone. The theory of humours is outdated in the medical science.
It is no longer what Aristotle has in mind. But such translation, as F. The passions to be moderated are these of pity and fear.
The pity and fear to be moderated are, again, of specific kind. There can never be an excess in the pity that results into a useful action. But there can be too much of pity as an intense and helpless feeling, and there can be also too much of self-pity which is not a praise-worthy virtue. The Catharsis or moderation of such pity ought to be achieved in the theatre or otherwise when possible, for such moderation keeps the mind in a healthy state of balance. Similarly, only specific kinds of fear are to be moderated. Lucas There are besides fear and pity the allied impulses which also are to be moderated.
We may feel release when certain emotions are worked up in the mind and are rinsed out as it were at the end which is more or less positive by implication, for death or calamity is explained and accounted for as arising from certain avoidable weakness or miscalculations of the hero.
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This sort of relaxation or release after a prolonged tension that is built up and maintained during the drama, though a welcome feeling, is not a purgation or moderation but fulfillment or satisfaction with the conclusion which is not only logical but also reasonable, which is not outrageously pessimistic but sadly positive and corrective of tragic errors to the spectators. They did not get rid of anything as in purgation they should; they gain something — a sort of artistic delight which tragedy gives. In fact, tragic delight is what they want and expect from tragedy, not moderation or proper balance of humours or purgation which has only ethical significance.
Certain moral ends of Catharsis might be incidentally achieved. But it is not the chief end of tragedy. The advocate of moderate indulgence is naturally driven to plead that wine is good medicinally and dancing as exercise; but, in fact, man do not usually drink wine as medicine, and only Socrates dances alone in his house for exercise. They do no deny that tragedy has as its chief end only tragic delight to serve. But in the anatomy of that delight they find the truth of psychology as elucidated by Aristotle in his theory of Catharsis.
Aristotle, they say, makes us critically aware of complex psychological processes that contribute to the art-experience of tragedy; while enjoying this experience we are not aware of these processes.
Repression, it appears, leads to neurosis. The idea associated with emotional states may, some physicians tell us, if denied their natural outlet issues in instability and hysteria. Relief of the unconscious mind, whether of the community or the individual form physical tension is at times a necessity… The milder ailment cures severer, the external excitement draws off the internal, the fear without disperses the fear within, the cup of the sour brims over and tranquility is restored.
Comparison Between Aristotle and Plato on Mimesis Essay
The third question is: What led Aristotle to adopt this theory? It should be remembered that Plato, his master, has attacked poetry in general including tragedy form moral and philosophical point of view. To quote F. Poetry, said Plato, encourages men to be hysterical and uncontrolled. On the contrary, answers his pupil, it makes them less, not more, emotional by giving a periodic healthy outlet to their feelings.
His Catharsis forms the most important part of his concept of tragedy as a positive, not pessimistic, drama which leaves wholesome effect, not mere disturbance, in the minds of the spectators. Since, Aristotle in Europe, tragedy has never been a drama of despair, causeless death or chance disaster. The drama that only paints horrors and leaves souls shattered and mind un-reconciled with the world may be described as a gruesome, ghastly play, but not a healthy tragedy, for tragedy is a play in which disaster or downfall has causes which could carefully be avoided and sorrow in it does not upset the balance in favour of pessimism.
That is why, in spite of seriousness, even heart-rending scenes of sorrow, tragedy embodies the vision of beauty.
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It stirs noble thoughts and serves tragic delight but does not condemn us to despair. If the healthy notion of tragedy is maintained throughout the literary history of Europe, the ultimate credit, perhaps, goes to Aristotle who propounded it in his theory of Catharsis. Catharsis established tragedy as a drama of balance. Sorrow alone would be ugly and repulsive. Beauty pure would be imaginative and mystical.